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History of calendars

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The history of calendars, that is, of people creating and using methods for keeping track of days and larger divisions of time, covers a practice with very ancient roots.

Archeologists have reconstructed methods of timekeeping that go back to prehistoric periods at least as old as the Neolithic. The natural units for timekeeping used by most historical societies are the day, the solar year and the lunationCalendars are explicit schemes used for timekeeping. The first recorded calendars date to the Bronze Age, dependent on the development of writing in the Ancient Near East, the Egyptian and Sumerian calendars.

A larger number of calendar systems of the Ancient Near East appear in the Iron Age archeological record, based on the Babylonian calendar. This includes the calendar of the Persian Empire, which in turn gave rise to the Zoroastrian calendar as well as the Hebrew calendar.

A great number of Hellenic calendars developed in Classical Greece, and in the Hellenistic period also influenced calendars outside the immediate sphere of Greek influence, giving rise to the various Hindu calendars as well as to the ancient Roman calendar.

Calendars in antiquity were usually lunisolar, depending on the introduction of intercalary months to align the solar and the lunar years. This was mostly based on observation, but there may have been early attempts to model the pattern of intercalation algorithmically, as evidenced in the fragmentary 2nd-century Coligny calendar. Nevertheless, the Roman calendar contained very ancient remnants of a pre-Etruscan 10-month solar year.[1]

The Roman calendar was reformed by Julius Caesar in 45 BCE. The Julian calendar was no longer dependent on the observation of the new moon but simply followed an algorithm of introducing a leap day every four years. This created a dissociation of the calendar month from the lunation.

In the 11th century in Persia, a calendar reform led by Khayyam was announced in 1079, where the length of the year was measured as 365.24219858156 days.[2] Given that the length of the year is changing in the sixth decimal place over a person's lifetime, this is outstandingly accurate. For comparison the length of the year at the end of the 19th century was 365.242196 days, while today it is 365.242190 days.[2]

The Gregorian calendar was introduced as a refinement of the Julian calendar in 1582, and is today in worldwide use as the de facto calendar for secular purposes.


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Simple photographic prints clipped to boards and hung in your favorite spaces.

What do you want from a calendar?... for me I would love special dates marked in. Like birthdays, anniversaries, recurring annual doctors visits, reminders to exercise or call and touch base with Michelle or Yanique with contact information in small font making that call easier to make.

I am all about my connections with people this year ( and that would really help me with reaching out). For him, my colleague at work who loves checking in on my creative endevours... he wants as a month ends and another begins with the turn of the page a new image that not only uplifts but inspires him into the new month. I wonder for you, What is it you would want in a calendar?

With love from Freeport;


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I suggest after making your prints clipping to a clip board and mounting on your wall near your work spaces or even at home on the fridge or any one of your favourite wall.